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Solvents

2-Ethyl-1-Hexanol compound

CAS#: 104-76-7
Chemical Name: 2-Ethyl-1-Hexanol

Primary Applications: Hydraulic Fracturing, Plasticizers, Solvents
2-Ethyl-1-hexanol is an alcohol that is a colorless liquid at room temperature with a slighty floral odor. 2-Ethyl-1-hexanol is used as a solvent for dyes, oils and resins as well as a plasticizer for PVC resins and a wetting agent. It can be manufactured by the hydrogenation of 2-ethyl-1-hexenal (HSDB 2003).

Propargyl Alcohol compound

CAS#: 107-19-7
Chemical Name: Propargyl Alcohol

Chemical Synonyms: 2-Propyn-1-ol

Primary Applications: Hydraulic Fracturing, Processing Aids and Additives, Solvents
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive;
1. Propargyl alcohol is used as a reactant/chemical intermediate for pharmaceutical and agricultural chemicals, soil fumigant, corrosion inhibitor, solvent stabilizer, and polymer modifier. It has also been used to prevent the hydrogen embrittlement of steel (NTP, 2008).
2. Fracking fluids

Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether compound

CAS#: 111-76-2
Chemical Name: Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether

Chemical Synonyms: EGBE; 2-butoxyethanol; ethylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether; 2-butoxyethanol; n-butoxyethanol; butyl cellosolve

Primary Applications: Hydraulic Fracturing, Processing Aids and Additives, Solvents
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive; Solvent in various applications, such as in surface coatings, lacquers, enamels, varnishes, varnish removers, latex paint, metal cleaners, and other commercially available cleaning products (EPA, 2010).

Xylenes compound

CAS#: 1330-20-7
Chemical Name: Xylenes

Chemical Synonyms: Dimethylbenzene (1,2-; 1,3-; or 1,4-); Xylenes; Xylol (mixture); m-, o-, or p-xylene (isomers); Methyltoluene

Primary Applications: Adhesives, Hydraulic Fracturing, Oil & Gas Production, Solvents
Xylenes are commonly used as an industrial solvent for paints, coatings, adhesives, and rubber.

Trimethylbenzenes  compound

CAS#: 25551-13-7
Chemical Name: Trimethylbenzenes

Chemical Synonyms: Mixture of Isomers: 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene (CAS #95-63-6): Pseudocumene; 1,2,5-Trimethylbenzene; 1,3,4-Trimethylbenzene; as-Trimethylbenzene; Asymmetrical trimethylbenzene; Benzene, 1,2,4-trimethyl-; Benzene, 1,2,5-trimethyl-; EINECS 202-436-9; Pseudocumol; psi-Cumene; Psi-cumene; Uns-trimethylbenzene; 1,2,4-Trimethyl benzene (ChemIDplus 2014a) 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene (CAS #108-67-8): Mesitylene; 3,5-Dimethyltoluene; Benzene, 1,3,5-trimethyl-; EINECS 203-604-4; sym-Trimethylbenzene; Trimethylbenzol; 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene [UN2325] [Flammable liquid]; Trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-; UN2325 (ChemIDplus 2014b) 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene (CAS #526-73-8): Hemimellitene; EINECS 208-394-8; Hemellitol; Hemimellitol; Benzene, 1,2,3-trimethyl- (ChemIDplus 2014c) Trimethylbenzenes (CAS #25551-13-7): EINECS 247-099-9; Methylxylene; Trimethyl benzene; Trimethylbenzene; Benzene, trimethyl-; Benzene, trimethyl- (mixed isomers); Trimethyl benzene (mixed isomers) (ChemIDplus 2014d)

Primary Applications: Solvents
Mixture of isomers: 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene (CASRN 95-63-6); 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene (CASRN 108-67-8); and 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene (CASRN 526-73-8). Trimethylbenzenes are chemicals that function as solvents and intermediates in the production of dyes, perfumes, and resins, as paint thinners, as motor fuel components, and as a co-monomer in the production of pseudocumene-formaldehyde resins (1,2,4-trimethylbenzene only).

Lactic Acid compound

CAS#: 50-21-5
Chemical Name: Lactic Acid

Chemical Synonyms: 2-Hydroxypropanoic acid; 2-Hydroxypropionic acid; DL-Lactic acid; Lactic acid [USP:JAN]; Lactic acid, dl-; Propanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-; (+-)-2-Hydroxypropanoic acid; (RS)-2-Hydroxypropionsaeure; 1-Hydroxyethanecarboxylic acid; 2-Hydroxypropanoic acid; 2-Hydroxypropionic acid; EINECS 200-018-0; EINECS 209-954-4; Ethylidenelactic acid; Lactate; Lactic acid (natural); Lactic acid USP; Milk acid; Ordinary lactic acid; Propionic acid, 2-hydroxy-; Racemic lactic acid

Primary Applications: Processing Aids and Additives, Solvents
Lactic acid is a chemical that functions as an acidulant in food, beverage and bakery products; it is used in the textile and leather industries as a mordant in printing woolen goods, a solvent for waterinsoluble dyes, and to reduce chromates in mordanting wool, and dehairing, plumping, and
decalcifying hides, and in the chemical industry for various purposes.

Propylene glycol compound

CAS#: 57-55-6
Chemical Name: Propylene glycol

Chemical Synonyms: 1,2-Propanediol, 2,3-Propanediol, 2-Hydroxypropanol, Methylethylene glycol (ChemIDplus 2014)

Primary Applications: Processing Aids and Additives, Solvents
Propylene glycol is a chemical that functions as a solvent, extractant, preservative, plasticizer, skin conditioning agent, viscosity-decreasing agent, humectant, and in polymer production.

Ethanol compound

CAS#: 64-17-5
Chemical Name: Ethanol

Chemical Synonyms: Ethyl alcohol; Alcohol; EtOH

Primary Applications: Hydraulic Fracturing, Processing Aids and Additives, Solvents
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive

CAS#: 64742-48-9
Chemical Name: Naphtha, Petroleum, Hydrotreated Heavy

Chemical Synonyms: Hydrotreated heavy naphtha (petroleum); Hydrotreated light steam cracked naphtha residuum (petroleum) (ChemIDplus 2014)

Primary Applications: Hydraulic Fracturing, Solvents
Naphtha, petroleum, hydrotreated heavy is a chemical that is primarily used as a solvent in a variety of applications including: extraction, cleaning, degreasing, aerosols, paints, wood preservatives, asphalt products, lacquers, and varnishes.

Isopropanol compound

CAS#: 67-63-0
Chemical Name: Isopropanol

Chemical Synonyms: 2-Propanol; Isopropyl alcohol, 1-Methylethanol; 1-Methyl alcohol; 2-Hydroxypropane; n-Propan-2-ol; 2-Propyl alcohol (ChemIDplus 2014)

Primary Applications: Hydraulic Fracturing, Solvents
1. Routinely used in hydraulic fracturing as a stabilizer and/or winterizing agent in corrosion
inhibitors, non-emulsifiers and surfactants. A typical water-based hydraulic fracturing fluid contains
isopropanol at 0.085%.
2. Solvent in food, pharmaceuticals and personal care products
3. Denaturing agent in specimen preparation
4. Chemical intermediate for organic synthesis
5. Disinfectant for home, hospital and industry (HSDB 2012)

Isoalkanes compound

CAS#: 68551-17-7
Chemical Name: Isoalkanes

Chemical Synonyms: C10-13 Isoparaffin; Alkanes, C10-13-iso- (ChemIDplus 2014)

Primary Applications: Solvents
Isoalkanes is a chemical that is used as a solvent in automotive products, paints and coatings, degreasers, wood/floor wax, as a diluent in asphalt applications, and as a pesticide carrier base.

Propanol compound

CAS#: 71-23-8
Chemical Name: Propanol

Chemical Synonyms: 1-Propanol; n-Propanol; n-Propyl alcohol; 1-Hydroxypropane; 1-Propyl alcohol; Ethylcarbinol; Ethylcarbinol; n-Propan-1-ol; Propanol-1; Propylic alcohol (ChemIDplus 2014)

Primary Applications: Solvents
Propanol is a chemical that functions as a flavoring substance in foods, as a solvent in inks, paint, cosmetics, and pesticides, as a chemical intermediate for the production of esters, amines, and other organic derivatives.

n-Butanol compound

CAS#: 71-36-3
Chemical Name: n-Butanol

Chemical Synonyms: 1-Butanol; Butyl alcohol; n-Butyl alcohol; Butyl alcohol; Propyl carbinol; Butanol, 1-; n- Butan-1-ol; 1-Hydroxybutane; Butyl hydroxide; Propylmethanol; Butanolen; Butyric alcohol; Methylolpropane (ChemIDplus 2014)

Primary Applications: Hydraulic Fracturing, Processing Aids and Additives, Solvents
n-Butanol is a clear, colorless liquid that is flammable. It is classified as a primary alcohol and is used primarily as a chemical intermediate, as an ingredient in formulated products such as cosmetics, and as a solvent.
1. Solvent for paints, lacquers, varnishes, resins, gums, vegetable oils, dyes and alkaloids (HSDB 2010).
2. An intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and chemicals (HSDB 2010).
3. Employed in industries producing artificial leather, textiles, safety glass, rubber cement, shellac, raincoats, photographic films and perfumes (HSDB 2010).
4. Additives in beverages and foods (HSDB 2010).

Benzene compound

CAS#: 71-43-2
Chemical Name: Benzene

Chemical Synonyms: Benzol, Cyclohexatriene, Phene, Phenyl hydride; Benzole; Carbon oil; Mineral naphtha; Coal naphtha; Motor benzol (ChemIDPlus 2014)

Primary Applications: Hydraulic Fracturing, Oil & Gas Production, Processing Aids and Additives, Solvents
Benzene is a chemical that functions as a raw material and intermediate for chemical synthesis, a solvent, a gasoline additive, and a natural component of diesel fuel that is used as a solvent in hydraulic fracturing fluids. Identified from air monitoring of unconventional natural gas extraction

Acetaldehyde compound

CAS#: 75-07-0
Chemical Name: Acetaldehyde

Chemical Synonyms: Acetic aldehyde, Ethyl aldehyde, Acetic ethanol, Ethanal

Primary Applications: Hydraulic Fracturing, Processing Aids and Additives, Solvents
Identified from air monitoring of unconventional natural gas extraction; Acetaldehyde is a chemical that functions mainly as a chemical intermediate:
1. Intermediate in the synthesis of pentaerythritol (25% in the U.S.)
2. Intermediate in the synthesis of pyridine and substituted pyridines (25% in the US)
3. Intermediate in the production of perfumes, polyester resins, basic dyes and metaldehyde
4. Fruit and fish preservative
5. Denaturant in alcohol
6. In fuel compositions
7. Solvent in rubber, tanning and paper industries

Dihydrogen Oxide compound

CAS#: 7732-18-5
Chemical Name: Dihydrogen Oxide

Chemical Synonyms: Water, deionized water, distilled water, ice

Primary Applications: Solvents
INORGANIC
1. Maintenance of biological systems and metabolism
2. Solvent

Tri-o-cresyl Phosphate compound

CAS#: 78-30-8
Chemical Name: Tri-o-cresyl Phosphate

Chemical Synonyms: o-Tolyl phosphate; TOCP; Tris(o-cresyl)-phosphate; o-Trikresylphosphate; TOTP; Tris(o-methylphenyl)phosphate; Phosphoric acid, tri-o-tolyl ester; Phosphoric acid, tris(2-methylphenyl) ester; Tri-o-tolyl phosphate; Phosphoric acid, tris(2-methylphenyl) ester; Tri-ortho-cresylphosphate; Tricresyl phosphate; triorthocresyl phosphate (ChemIDplus 2014)

Primary Applications: Flame Retardants, Lubricants, Plasticizers, Processing Aids and Additives, Solvents
Functions as a plasticizer, flame retardant, lubricant, waterproofing agent, solvent, chemical intermediate and gasoline additive

Isobutanol compound

CAS#: 78-83-1
Chemical Name: Isobutanol

Chemical Synonyms: Isobutyl alcohol; 1-Hydroxymethylpropane; 1-Propanol, 2-methyl-; 2-Methyl propanol;2-Methyl-1-propanol; 2-Methylpropyl alcohol; EINECS 201-148-0; Fermentation butyl alcohol; Isobutanol; Isopropylcarbinol; 2-Methylpropan-1-ol; Iso-butyl alcohol; Isobutanol or isobutyl alcohol [UN1212] [Flammable liquid] (ChemIDplus 2014)

Primary Applications: Solvents
Isobutanol is a chemical that functions as a solvent in surface coatings, adhesives, paint strippers, lacquers, perfumes, cleaners, and hydraulic fluid, and is used in the production of isobutyl esters and flavoring agents.

Naphthalene compound

CAS#: 91-20-3
Chemical Name: Naphthalene

Chemical Synonyms: Antimite; naphthalin; naphthene, tar camphor (ECB, 2003)

Primary Applications: Hydraulic Fracturing, Oil & Gas Production, Processing Aids and Additives, Solvents
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive; Numerous uses cited by ECB (2003) include chemical intermediate or reagent in the manufacturing of phthalic anhydride, azo dyes, naphthalene sulfonic acids (for the manufacture of plasticizers for concrete, ingredient in plasterboard, dispersants in synthetic and natural rubbers, and in tanning agents for leather industries), alkylated naphthalene solvents, and feed stock in numerous miscellaneous chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Also used in mothballs (as a moth repellant and insecticide), for pyrotechnics in the film industry (to make ignitable pellets for the generation of black smoke, or in a container with a charge to simulate an explosion), and in the manufacture of grinding wheels.

1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene compound

CAS#: 95-63-6
Chemical Name: 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene

Chemical Synonyms: 1,2,4-TMB; pseudocumene

Primary Applications: Hydraulic Fracturing, Processing Aids and Additives, Solvents
Hydraulic fracturing fluid additive